Copper heat exchangers are more efficient than shell & tube exchangers for low flow rates. Due to their simple construction they are low price & easy to clean on the shell side. Their thermal efficiency approximates that of a true countercurrent flow type exchanger. Condenserors are used for condensation of vapours & cooling to liquids. Condensers are made by fusing number of parallel coils in a glass shell. Coils are made in different diameters using tubes of different bores. Copper tubes are artificial to special requirements as to dimensional tolerances, finish & tempers for use in condensers & heat exchangers. These copper heat exchanger tubes normally supplied in straight length in annealed & half hard temper. The copper tubes shaped by are metal industries not have the stiff tolerances but also have the most dependable dimensions throughout the tube length. The tube surface is clean both inside & outside with no caustic stains. The copper tubes produced by are metal industries suitable to transfer heat in a wide variety of operating conditions & to refuse to accept decay for the longest period of time possible under the harshest operating circumstances.
The major applications of copper are in electrical wires (60%), roofing & plumbing (20%) & industrial machinery (15%). Copper is mostly used as a metal, but when a higher hardness is required it is combined with other elements to make an alloy (5% of total use) such as brass & bronze. A small part of copper supply is used in production of compounds for nutritional supplements & fungicides in agriculture. Machining of copper is possible, although it can usually necessary to use an alloy for intricate parts to get good machinability characteristics.
The electrical properties of copper are exploited in copper wires & devices such as electromagnets. Integrated circuits & printed circuit boards increasingly feature copper in place of aluminium because of its superior electrical conductivity (see Copper interconnect for main article); heat sinks & heat exchangers use copper as a result of its superior heat dissipation capacity to aluminium. Vacuum tubes, cathode ray tubes, & the magnetrons in microwave ovens use copper, as do wave guides for microwave radiation.Copper's greater conductivity versus other metallic materials enhances the electrical energy efficiency of motors.This is important because motors & motor-driven systems account for 43%-46% of all global electricity consumption & 69% of all electricity used by industry. Increasing the mass & cross section of copper in a coil increases the electrical energy efficiency of the motor. Copper motor rotors, a new technology designed for motor applications where energy savings are prime design objectives, are enabling general-purpose induction motors to meet & exceed National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) premium efficiency standard.
The average co-efficient of heat transfer in coil condenser is considered as :-
Condensation : 200 - 270 Kacl/m2, hr,oC apprx.
Cooling : 100 - 150 Kacl/m2, hr,oC apprx.